This is the third post in the series on Iris acquisition for biometrics. In the first and the second posts we saw that, at least in theory, iris recognition is an ideal biometric, and we went through some of the desirable properties of an iris acquisition system. However, currently most iris recognition systems require a single subject to stand (or move slowly) at a certain standoff distance from the camera in order capture and process iris images. Wouldn’t it be nice if iris recognition could be simultaneously performed for a group of people who may be standing/ moving within a large volume? Such systems could potentially be used in crowded places such as airports, stadiums, railway stations etc.
In this post, we will look at one of the limitations of current iris recognition systems – the limited depth of field, the fundamental cause of this limitation, and how some of the current systems are addressing this problem.
The problem of DOF
The inability of any conventional imaging system to capture sharp images within a large volume is illustrated in the Figure 1.
Perfect imaging corresponds to the ability of an imager to produce a scaled replica of an object in the image space . When only a small portion of the light wave emerging from an infinitesimally small point source of light is collected through a finite opening of a camera’s aperture (Figure 2 (a)), the replica in the image space is not exact even in the absence of aberrations; instead, the image of the point spreads out in space due to diffraction at the aperture. This dispersed response in the three-dimensional image space is called Point Spread Function (PSF). The spreading of the PSF along the transverse (xy-axis) direction (a 2D PSF) restricts an imager’s ability to resolve fine details (spatial frequency) in the image. For an extended object, which is made of several points, the 2D PSF smears the responses from neighboring points into each other causing blur. Similarly, the spread along the longitudinal direction (z-axis) limits the ability to discriminate points staggered closely in the direction of the optical axis causing a region of uncertainty; however, the extension of the 3D PSF along the optical axis enables multiple spatially-separated objects (or points) within a volume in the object space to form acceptably sharp images at once. Conversely, an (point) object in the object space may be placed anywhere within this zone and still form a satisfactory image. This zone of tolerance in the object space is called depth of field. The corresponding zone in the image space is called depth of focus . In this post, the acronym “DOF” is used for both depth of field and depth of focus wherever its meaning is apparent from the context. In the image space, the DOF is defined as the region of the 3D PSF where the intensity is above 80% of the central maximum [3,4]. This zone is in the shape of a prolate spheroid. In the absence of aberrations, the maximum intensity occurs at the geometric focal point, , where contributions from all parts of the pupil are all in phase. Figure 2 (b) shows the aberration-free intensity distribution, , as a function of defocus about the geometric focal point for a light source placed at 100 millimeters from a lens of focal-length of 25 mm and aperture diameter of 5 mm. The expression for the distribution—normalized to make equal to unity—is obtained using scalar diffraction theory and paraxial assumptions.
The shape—length and breadth—of the 80% intensity region (Figure 2(b)) dictates the quality of the image acquired by an imager in terms of lateral spatial resolution and DOF.